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Windt im Wald Farm
Geauga County, Northeast Ohio
since 1995

LINE-BREEDING AND IN-BREEDING
By BEN HUR
(Western Horseman May/Jun'45)

[Ed. Note: Today Ibrahim is accepted as a
Desert-Bred stallion. See footnote (1) below
]

Aarah No. 1184, chestnut Arabian mare owned by Ben Hur Farms, and her filly foal, Aarafa No. 2870, by Champion Raffles. She and all in her pedigree, including the fourth generation, have the blood of the tap-root stallion, Zobeyni -- a striking example of line-breeding.

Polish Arabians(44)
May Have Been Saved

Pedigree BREEDING(45)

Line-Breeding And In-Breeding(45)

 In-Breeding and Size(45)

Seward's Arabians(45)

WASHINGTON'S BEST Saddle Horse(46)

Arabian Blood(46)           

(The Keene Richards Importations)

Arabians(47)
GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT'S

ARABIAN ANCESTORS(49)
THE Thoroughbred's

Arabs At Chicago, 1893 (50)

Type in the Arab(51)

           WHAT KIND OF a stallion would you select to mate to your mares to improve the quality of the foal? Would your first consideration be that the stallion and mares be unrelated? Or would you select the best stallion available, with the best breeding (pedigree) regardless of his relationship to the mares?

          Do you study the pedigrees of prospective sires? Do you know their breeding, and do you have the pedigree of your mares? Marked improvement in your foals can be made regardless of the kind of mares you have. You may have Pintos, Palominos, Quarter Horses, Morgans, Albinos, Arabians or American Saddle horses or just plain Stock Horses. By selecting the right kind of stallion you can make improvements each generation. The better the breeding of your mares, the more nearly pure in blood, the greater improvement in the foals.

          Line-breeding and in-breeding are the old and time-proven methods by which breed improvement has been made in the past. This is true in cattle, horses, sheep, poultry, dogs. All our present day breeds are the result of close line-breeding and often, intense in-breeding. There is no mystery where our finest horse, cattle, sheep and dogs came from. A study of their pedigrees will reveal the facts. Owners of pedigreed animals are well aware of the importance of line-breeding and in-breeding. However, you, too, with grade mares may, by a definite breeding program and the proper selection of a stallion, employ the same methods of improvement in the foals.

          Let us study the breeding of Arabians. They are pure in blood and their pedigrees extend back many generations. Pedigrees of Thoroughbreds, Morgans, American Saddle horses, as well as Arabians, all reveal the same fact, i.e., that there have been certain outstanding males ever so often that have dominated and influenced all succeeding generations. The male exerts a far greater influence in breed improvement than the female, due solely to the numerical supremacy of off-spring. A mare may have twenty foals in a lifetime, but a stallion may get fifty or one hundred foals a year for ten to twenty years.

          Zobeyni, famous Arabian stallion more than 100 years ago, furnishes an interesting study. Pedigrees of Arabians back five or six generations seldom show his name. But his blood is the greatest influence today among Arabians in England, the United States, Egypt, Australia, South America or whenever there are pure Arabians. It is more difficult to find Arabians without his blood, than with it. Zobeyni was a grey Seglawi Jedran stallion of the strain of Ibn Sbeyni of the Mehed tribe of the Fedaan Anazeh Bedouins, bred in Arabia and imported to Egypt early in the 19th century where he became enormously important in the world-famous stud of Abbas Pacha I. He is the founder of the male line that has been most successful throughout the world the past century. His great grandson, Mesaoud, and great, great grandson, Skowronek(1), are each in turn contributing as much or more than their illustrious ancestors to the success of Arabians in the 20th century.

     Skowronek, bred in Poland, was later used as leading stallion at Lady Wentworth's Crabbet Stud in England, from where his blood has gone to all parts of the world where Arabians are bred.

     Mesaoud, grandson of the tap-root stallion, Zobeyni. Bred in Egypt, he was taken to England, then to Russia.

          Arab tribes in the desert followed the custom of giving the strain and family name of the mare to the foal, rather than the name of the sire. The custom, followed in this country for a number of years, led to confusion and misunderstanding. The foal, given the strain name of its dam, might be, and in nearly every instance was, from a number of other strains and with many more related bloodlines on the male side than the female. As a result of this confusion, The Arabian Horse Club of America several years ago discontinued the practice of giving strain names to Arabians registered with them.

 

          A study of the pedigrees with this article illustrates the fallacy of blindly following and giving breeding value to the strain name of the dam. Champion Raffles, for example, has been referred to as Kehilan for four generations back. Had the custom been followed of giving the strain name of the sire to the foal it will be readily seen that Raffles would be a Seglawi Jedran, from his illustrious male line -- Skowronek, Ibrahim, Heijer, Mahruss, Wazir and Zobeyni.

    Champion Raffles, owned by Roger Selby, Portsmouth, Ohio, bred by Lady Wentworth in England. As son and grandson of Skowronek, he is an example of successful in-breeding and line-breeding from the Zobeyni line.

 

Aaraf,
foaled in 1943, sired by Raffles, out of Aarah. Note resemblance to Mesaoud, who appears nine times in pedigree.

To the student of pedigrees and breeding it will be apparent that there is vastly more involved than a custom in this instance. These pedigrees aptly illustrate the vastly greater importance and influence of the male line in most pedigrees. Raffles goes back to Zobeyni not once but twelve times, out of thirty-two ancestors in the sixth generation. Rose of Sharon, the great grand-dam of Raffles in the sixth generation, whose strain or family name of Kehilan has been arbitrarily given by those who still follow this custom, appears in his pedigree but once. We leave it to the reader to decide whether the male Zobeyni (Seglawi) line or the female Rose of Sharon (Kehilan) blood and influence is the stronger.

          The questionable value placed on strain and family names of the dam is shown in the pedigree of Raffles in that there are seven different strain names out of thirty-two names in the sixth generation and nine names of unknown strain names.

Abu Zeyd,
son of Mesaoud, was foaled in England, imported to United States in 1904 by Homer Davenport.

          The pedigree of the Arabian mare, Aarah, pictured with this article, shows that she is bred along the same lines as Raffles, in fact, they are very much in line. Aarah, like Raffles, would be Kehilan from her dam's side, but take time to count -- 18 of her 32 ancestors in the sixth generation are sons and daughters of grandsons and daughters of the famous Zobeyni, a Seglawi. Mesaoud, illustrious great grandson of Zobeyni, and also a Seglawi through his dam, appears eight times in the pedigree of Aarah. Is there reason then for similarity of appearance of Aarah and Mesaoud?

          Aaraf and Aarafa, out of Aarah and by Raffles, follow to a marked degree the type and markings of Mesaoud. The pedigree of Raffles shows Mesaoud twice which added to that of Aarah makes Mesaoud appear ten times in the pedigrees of Aaraf and Aarafa and numerical superiority is the answer. We must not assume that success in breeding is a mathematical problem of addition and multiplication. Breeders have universally found it safe to follow the rule of eliminating from the pedigree the undesirable and animals of doubtful value and to multiply as often as possible the highly desirable animals. The blood of Zobeyni, for example, appears in 12 out of 16 ancestors of Aarah in the fifth generation and Zobeyni is a common ancestor in eight out of eight ancestors of Aarah in the fifth generation and Zobeyni is a common ancestor in eight out of eight ancestors in the fourth generation, yet without direct, close-up in-breeding.

          What is in-breeding? The commonly accepted definition is that of mating dam to son, as in the case of Rifala, daughter of Skowronek, back to Skowronek, or sire bred to daughter, the two most commonly practiced. There may be several other close variations of in-breeding, brother and sister, half-brother and sister, dam to grandson, sire to granddaughter.

          In-breeding has been found to be most successful where there has been a previous successful outcross. Ibrahim, sire of Skowronek, it will be noted, is an example of the closest kind of line-breeding in that in the fourth generation Wazir, sired by Zobeyni, appears three times and his full sister Horra, once, mated to a grandson of Zobeyni. Eleven of 14 of Ibrahim's ancestors in the first four generations are close up in the blood of Zobeyni. Ibrahim, taken to Poland from Egypt, and out-crossed on the Polish Arabian mare, Yaskoulka, not directly related, produced Skowronek, whose blood is found in Arabians around the world today. The blood of Skowronek was intensified in his get, Raffles, when he was bred to his daughter, Rifala, thus giving Raffles three-fourths of the blood of Skowronek, combined with the blood of Mesaoud of the same line of breeding.

          The predominate blood of a female line is harder to find among pedigrees of horses of live stock, not because there are not highly desirable females but in the case of horses, because of the limit placed on re reproduction in the mare as compared to the stallion.

*RAFFLES No 952
Grey Arabian Stallion --
 
                    Wazir * s
               Mahruss*
                    BF Saouda w
          Heijer*
                    Wazir
               B Jamila*
                    Ghazieh s
     Ibrahim*
                    Aziz * d
               a Seg-Jed*
                    Horra * s
          La Fitte*
                    Wazir *
               Makbula*
                    M Kebira k
SIRE
Skowronek*
                    Cercle
               Kortez
                    Gonta
          Rymnik
                    Kohejlan
               Hama
                    Caramba
     Yaskoulka
                    -----
               Derwisz
                    -----
          Epopeja
                    O Maciuk
               Lira
                    Kreolka k
 
 
                    Mahruss * w
               Heijer *
                    B Jamila s
          Ibrahim
                    a Seg-Jed
               La Fitte*
                    Makbula * k
     Skowronek*
                    Kortez
               Rymnik
                    Gonta
          Yaskoulka
                    Derwisz
               Epopea
                    Lira
DAM
Rifala*
                    Mesaoud * s
               Seyal*
                    Sobha * h
          Berk*
                    Ahmar a
               Bukra
                    Bozra s
     Rissla*
                    Aziz * d
               Mesaoud*
                    Yemameh s
          Risala
                    Merzuk * k
               Ridaa*
                    R Sharon k

    * Asterisk after the name denotes those with the ancient, tap-root, desert-bred stallion, Zobeyni, as an ancestor, founder of the male line that has been most successful in England and the U.S. the past century.
    The small letters after the names in the sixth generation denote the family strain names, k -- Kehilan; s -- Seglawi; a -- Abeyan; b -- Sh. Sba; d--D. Shahwan; h -- Hamdani; w -- W. Hursan.
    The capital letters before certain names are, R -- Rose; M -- Makbula; O -- Obejan; B -- Bint; F -- Faras. ......


AARAH No. 1184 Chestnut Arabian Mare --

                    Mesaoud * s
               Seyal*
                    Sobha * h
          Berk*
                    Ahmar
               Bukra
                    Bozra
     Ribal*
                    I Mahruss * s
               Rijm*
                    R Sharon k
          Rijma*
                    Mesaoud * s
               Risala*
                    Ridaa * k
SIRE
Ghadaf*
                    Mesaoud * s
               Harb*
                    B Helwa * s
          Rodan*
                    Hadban h
               R Sharon
                    Rodania k
     Gulnare*
                    Sottam n
               I Sherara
                    Sheara k
          Ghazala*
                    Aziz * d
               B Helwa*
                    Helwa * s
 
                    Ibn Nura * d
               Feysul*
                    El Argaa k
          I Yashmak*
                    Shahwan * d
               Yashmak*
                    Yemama k
     Rizvan*
                    I Mahruss * s
               Rijm*
                    R Sharon k
          Rijma*
                    Mesaoud * s
               Risala*
                    Ridaa * k
DAM
Nadirat*
                    Aziz * d
               Mesaoud*
                    Yemameh s
          Abu Zeyd*
                    Azrek s
               R Diamond
                    R Jericho k
     Nusara*
                    I Mahruss * s
               Rijm*
                    R Sharon k
          Noam*
                    Rejeb * k
               Narda II *
                    Narghileh * k

    * Asterisk after the name denotes those with the ancient, tap-root, desert-bred stallion, Zobeyni, as an ancestor, founder of the male line that has been most successful in England and the U.S. the past century.
    The small letters after the names in the sixth generation denote the family strain names: k -- Kehilan; s -- Seglawi; d -- D Shahwan; h -- Hamdani; a -- Abeyan; n -- D Nejib; h -- H Enzeki.
    Capital letters before names denote R - Rose; I -- Ibn; B -- Bint.

          The Arabian mare Rodania, celebrated mare of the desert, captured by the Gomussa tribe, sold to the Blunts, and taken to their Crabbet stud, England, in 1881, is the most striking example of the female influence. Note her daughters in these pedigrees and the number of times they appear -- Rose of Sharon, Rose of Jericho, and her granddaughters Rose Diamond and Ridaa, and grandsons, Rijm, Rodan and Rejeb. The pedigrees of Raffles and Aarah in connection with this articles illustrate the concentration of blood of a male and female line of successful line-breeding and the more controversial in-breeding. You may apply the practical application of these results in breeding to your own horses, no matter what breed or type.

(1) Today Ibrahim is accepted as a desert-bred stallion. For more information see:

Lady Wentworth's THE AUTHENTIC ARABIAN HORSE

Schile, Erika THE ARAB HORSE IN EUROPE

Potocki, Count Joseph (son of Skowronek's breeder) "Skowronek's Pedigree and the Antoniny Stud" The Arabian Horse News, Feb. '58.

Blunt, Lady Anne JOURNALS AND CORRESPONDENCE 1878-1917

Guttmann, Ursula: THE LINEAGE OF THE POLISH ARABIAN HORSES

Dickenson, J.M. A CATALOG OF TRAVELERS REST ARABIAN HORSES

See also:

Skowronek -- Magic Progenitor

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